The drug is used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin PP deficiency (B3), atherosclerosis, cerebral, coronary and peripheral arteries spasm, neuropathy. High doses and long-term use disrupt the liver, metabolic processes. It is recommended to include in the diet cottage cheese when applying Nicotinic acid.
Read in this article.
The Benefits and Harm of Nicotinic Acid
This medication has vitamin activity and is involved in tissue respiration reactions, the formation of proteins, fats and the breakdown of glycogen stores in the liver and muscles. The presence of nicotinic acid in the blood accelerates the processes of oxidation, energy production. The main therapeutic properties include:
- prevention of atherosclerosis progression,
- improving blood flow,
- expansion of peripheral, coronary and cerebral vessels,
- reduction of intoxication,
- improvement of the liver, stomach and intestines (in small doses),
- accelerating the healing of wounds and ulcers,
- restoration of the conduction of impulses in the nerve fibers.
Nicotinic acid is called an anti-pellagenic remedy, since when it is deficient, the three-d symptom complex develops: skin lesions (dermatitis), persistent diarrhea (diarrhea), and dementia (dementia).
When taking high doses of the drug, there is redness of the skin of the face and body, dizziness, hot flushes, numbness in the extremities, with hypersensitivity to Nicotinic acid, blood pressure decreases significantly, heart rhythm disturbances, nausea and vomiting, persistent skin itching may occur. When examining patients who took this drug for a long time, they find:
- increase of glucose and uric acid in the blood,
- fatty liver dystrophy,
- increase in body weight associated with impaired carbohydrate and fat metabolism,
- lesion of the gastric mucosa, duodenum and small intestine.
One of the side effects is the accelerated growth of hair during external application. It is used by cosmetologists for treating baldness.
And here more about the treatment of dyslipidemia.
Nicotinic acid is a compound similar in structure to nicotinamide.
The use of nicotinic acid is important to stimulate blood circulation, brain activity, the exchange of amino acids, fats, carbohydrates, proteins.
This vitamin is of great importance for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It helps reduce cholesterol, lipoprotein and triglyceride - substances that clog blood vessels, increase blood pressure and the formation of blood clots, limit blood flow.
Indications for use of nicotinic acid
Vitamin is administered intravenously, taken orally, make subcutaneous and intramuscular injections of nicotinic acid.
The tool is used for the treatment and prevention of pellagra, treatment of mild diabetes, heart disease, gastrointestinal ulcers, liver, enterocolitis, gastritis with low acidity, poorly healing skin lesions, to relieve spasms of brain vessels, arms and legs, kidneys.
Also means include in the complex therapy of neuritis of the facial nerve, atherosclerosis, various infections.
Instructions for use of nicotinic acid
Nicotinic acid for prophylaxis is prescribed for adults at 15-25mg, for children 5-20mg per day.
For the treatment of pellagra, adults take nicotinic acid tablets in 100 mg to four p / day for 15-20 days. You can enter 1% solution of acid - 1 ml to two p / day for 10-15dn. Children give 5-50mg two or three p / day.
According to other indications, adults take 20-50mg vitamin, children - 5-30mg up to three p / day.
As a means of dilating blood vessels in ischemic stroke, 1 ml of nicotinic acid is administered intravenously.
Intramuscular and subcutaneous injections of nicotinic acid, unlike intravenous administration, are painful. In order to avoid irritation, you can apply the sodium salt of nicotinic acid.
Due to the ability of this vitamin to expand blood vessels, nicotinic acid is useful for hair - it stimulates their growth. For the treatment of hair solution rubbed into the scalp for 30dn, 1 ml (one ampoule).
Apply the solution in its pure form, on slightly damp, washed hair. After a month of hair treatment with nicotinic acid, dandruff cleansing of the scalp, strengthening of the roots is observed, the hair grows 4-6 cm. If necessary, rubbing courses can be repeated periodically, with breaks of 15-20 days.
Successfully use nicotinic acid for weight loss. Weight correction is promoted by the fact that vitamin accelerates metabolism, helps to clear blood vessels, level cholesterol levels, remove heavy metals, toxins. The dosage of nicotinic acid for weight loss for each person is individual, and is 100-250mg per day. Usually take nicotinic acid tablets, no more than 1 g per day, several times a day. It is considered normal reaction to acid in the form of redness of the skin and the tide of heat. With increased acidity of gastric secretions take vitamin exclusively after meals.
The use of nicotinic acid can cause: redness of the skin of the face, upper half of the body, rash, numbness in the extremities, dizziness, hot flushes. These side effects pass on their own.
With the rapid introduction of the vitamin intravenously, the pressure can drop dramatically, and with prolonged use and in high dosages the agent can provoke the appearance of fatty hepatic dystrophy. To prevent this disease, a vitamin is prescribed simultaneously with methionine.
What is nicotinic acid
Vitamin PP, B3 or nicotinic acid (Latin name nicotinic acidum) is an important substance for the body. Once inside, it breaks down to niacinamide, which is involved in the process of metabolism of fats. The main purpose of the vitamin is to convert food into energy. The daily need for nicotinic acid is 5-10 mg, for pregnant women - 15 mg. The attending physician prescribes it if indicated.
According to pharmacological definitions, the following forms of release of this vitamin preparation are distinguished:
- vitamin B3 in ampoules - 1 ml each, ampoules of glass, the pH of the solution for injection is 5-7,
- powder for injection
- tablets (50 pcs.) - a drug to fill the acid deficiency, the content of the active substance is 0.05 g,
- sodium nicotinate solution –0.1% nicotine solution.
Nicotinic acid drugs
Vitamin is an integral component of the drugs Vitiodurol, Vicen, Xanthinol nicotinate, Lipostabil, Nikoverin, Nikoshpan, Spazmokor. It is contained in two forms - acid and nicotinamide. Both formats are active components of the funds, have the same pharmacological purpose, a similar therapeutic effect. Nicotinamide is included in the drugs:
- pills and injection Niacinamide,
- Tablets and nicotinamide solution,
- Nicotine Acid Bufus or Vial,
Instructions for use of nicotinic acid
According to the annotation, vitamin PP can be used in the form of tablets (by mouth after meals) and ampoules (parenterally). As prevention, adults are prescribed 0.015-0.025 g per day. When pellagra take 15-20 days, 0.1 g 2-4 times / day, or injections of 1% aqueous solution, 1 ml twice a day, in a course of 10-15 days. With other diseases, adults take up to 0.1 g of the drug per day. If there are no side effects, in the treatment of atherosclerosis and disorders of lipid metabolism a single dose can be increased to 1 g, and daily to 4 g.
Vitamin PP tablets used for long-term treatment and prevention of diseases. In the first case, they are recommended to be taken in the autumn and spring of people with circulatory problems of the lower extremities. It is allowed to take 1-2 tablets three times a day, in parallel using methionine preparations to protect the liver. If the patient has an increased acidity of the gastric juice, the medication is taken after meals, washed down with mineral water or warm milk.
If you drink pills before eating, it can provoke discomfort: burning in the stomach, nausea. Dosage depends on age, weight and illness:
- up to 25 mg / day is taken for prophylaxis,
- with the appearance of pellagra 100 mg 3-4 times / day course of 15-20 days,
- with atherosclerosis 2-3 / day, 3-4 doses,
- in violation of the metabolism of fats in the first week take 500 mg one-time, the second twice, the third three times, a course of 2.5-3 months,
- to increase the concentration of high-density lipoprotein, should be taken at 1 g / day,
- to reduce the risk of heart disease 500-1000 mg / day,
- courses of therapy are repeated with a month interval.
Enter drugs can be in the form of subcutaneous, intravenous or intramuscular injection. Nicotinic acid injections are slowly injected into the vein, in a jet, in the hospital because of the possible risk of severe allergic reactions. Subcutaneous and intramuscular injections are allowed for self-use at home. They are very painful, so you should choose the right place.
The optimal areas for injections are the upper part of the shoulder, the front surface of the thigh, the anterior abdominal wall in the absence of excess weight, the upper outer quadrant of the buttock. For subcutaneous administration, it is better to prick the area of the forearm and the front wall of the abdomen. Use for intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous injections can be 1.5 or 2.5% solutions, administered 1-2 times per day. The dosage depends on the type of disease:
- with pellagra and symptoms of deficiency - 50 mg intravenously or intramuscularly 100 mg 1-2 times / day in a course of 10-15 days,
- for ischemic stroke - 100-500 mg intravenously,
- for other diseases and children use pills.
How to prick intramuscularly
After selecting a place, wipe it with an antiseptic, draw a solution into the syringe, release a few drops, lifting the needle upward to expel air bubbles, inject, treat the puncture site with alcohol or chlorhexidine. For each injection, choose a new place, retreating from the previous 1-1.5 cm. Intramuscular injection is done like this: enter the needle deeply, slowly push the plunger and release the solution.
Nicotinic acid during pregnancy and lactation
If the pregnancy proceeds normally, vitamin PP is not prescribed. In cases of drug dependence, multiple fertility, abnormal functioning of the placenta, pathology of the liver and biliary tract, the drug is indicated for use. When carrying a child remedy eliminates spasm, improves blood circulation, reduces its viscosity. Vitamin B3 prevents the formation of blood clots, blockage of vessels in the placenta, reduces the risk of fetal death and preterm birth. To increase lactation pills are shown, but with caution and monitoring the condition of the child.
Use in children
Up to two years, taking ampoule vitamin B3 is contraindicated in children. The child can only be given a tablet form of the drug, orally after a meal with washing down with cool drinks, mineral water. Dosage depends on the purpose:
- for prevention - 0.005-0.02 g per day,
- with pellagra - 0.005-0.05 g 2-3 times per day,
- other diseases - 0.005-0.03 g 2-3 times a day.
Nicotinic acid and alcohol
Practicing doctors and scientists note the intoxication effect of vitamin B3. It helps to quickly remove toxic substances from the body, binds free radicals, neutralizes the effect of poisons on the cells of organs and tissues. The drug is widely used in the removal of hangover, in the treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction, exposure to harmful substances in the workplace.
Before prescribing vitamin PP, tell your doctor if you are using any other medicines because it has the following drug interactions:
- when combined with fibrinolytics, cardiac glycosides and antispasmodics, enhances the effect,
- while taking barbiturates, neomycin, sulfonamides, anti-tuberculosis drugs is accompanied by an increase in toxic action,
- increases the risk of side effects when used with antihypertensive drugs, aspirin, anticoagulants,
- nicotinic acid develops toxic effects with lipid-lowering drugs,
- reduces the severity of the effect of the anti-diabetes medication system.
Compatibility with alcohol
According to the instructions for use of vitamin B3, it is incompatible with alcohol, drugs, which include ethanol. Increasing the toxic effect on the liver, reducing the absorption of bile acid sequestrants, becomes a dangerous effect. It is necessary to refrain from taking alcoholic beverages and medicines while taking the drug.
Instructions for use of vitamin B3 in ampoules and tablets contains instructions for contraindications:
- severe forms of hypertension, atherosclerosis (intravenous),
- hypersensitivity to components
- prolonged use threatens fatty liver dystrophy (you can get rid of this by combining the administration of products with products rich in methionine, prescribed with methionine or lipotropic drugs)
Abstract, enclosed inside each pack of nicotine, contains special instructions that must be followed when taking the funds:
- high doses of vitamin C are contraindicated during pregnancy, breastfeeding,
- liver therapy should be monitored regularly during therapy,
- use nicotine acid with caution in hyperacid gastritis, ulcers (irritated mucous membrane), hepatitis, cirrhosis, diabetes,
- for the correction of dyslipidemia in diabetics does not apply,
- At the initial stage of use, the content of fats, sugars, uric acid is monitored,
- prolonged use threatens with leaching of vitamin C.
For the active substance, the following structural analogues of the considered drug are distinguished, with similar therapeutic effects, produced by domestic or foreign manufacturers:
- Nicotine Acid Bufus or Vial,
Preparations of vitamin B3 can be purchased online or ordered through the catalog through a pharmacy. The cost depends on the form of release, manufacturer. Sample prices:
What is prescribed for cardiac problems
Under the influence of Nicotinic acid, the production of low-density lipoprotein complexes, which provoke the development of atherosclerosis, is reduced. The anti-atherogenic effect is also manifested by the normalization of total cholesterol (after one month) and triglycerides (on the first day of administration). The level of high-density lipoproteins increases, which protect the inner lining of the arteries from plaque attachment.
Course taking medication prevents the progression of myocardial ischemia and blockage of the arteries that feed the internal organs.
This drug is used to treat patients with heart disease also due to such actions:
- has a vasodilator effect,
- activates the systemic circulation and microcirculation,
- prevents the formation of blood clots.
The drug is indicated for angina pectoris, especially for the vasospastic version of its course, dyslipidemia, angiopathy.
The use of tablets, intramuscularly
Drinking pills should be strictly after meals. In many patients, when they are taken on an empty stomach, there is a strong reddening of the skin and hot flashes, there is pain in the abdomen and heartburn. The prophylactic dose is 25-50 mg, and in case of pellagra it is increased to 100 mg. The maximum daily dose is 500 mg.
Some patients suffering from atherosclerosis, the doctor may recommend a gradual increase in dosage - from 50 mg after dinner with a daily addition of 50 mg to 2-3 g of Nicotinic acid per day, provided that it is well tolerated. Intravenous drug is administered in ischemic stroke with 1 ml of 1% solution per day. Droppers with medication prescribed daily or every other day in an amount of from 10 to 15.
Intramuscular and subcutaneous injections can cause severe pain, so they are most often not used, replacing Xanthineol with nicotinate.
Look at the video about the effect of nicotinic acid:
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Table of daily intake of nicotinic acid Edit
|Floor||Age||Daily intake of nicotinic acid, mg / day|
|Babies||up to 6 months||2|
|Babies||7 - 12 months||6|
|Children||1 - 3 years||8|
|Children||4 - 8 years||10|
|Children||9 - 13 years old||12|
|Men||14 years and older||20|
|Women||14 years and older||20|
|Pregnant women||Any age||25|
|Lactating women||Any age||25|
Care must be taken when combining with antihypertensive drugs, anticoagulants and ASA.
Reduces the toxicity of neomycin and prevents them from reducing the concentration of cholesterol and HDL.
For the prevention of hypovitaminosis PP, a balanced diet is most preferable, treatment requires the additional prescription of vitamin PP. Foods rich in vitamin PP are yeast, liver, nuts, egg yolk, milk, fish, chicken, meat, legumes, buckwheat, raw grains, green vegetables, ground nuts, any protein foods containing tryptophan. Heat treatment of milk does not change the content of vitamin PP in it.
In the process of long-term treatment (especially when prescribing not as a vitamin drug), it is necessary to monitor liver function. To prevent complications from the liver, it is recommended to include products rich in methionine (cottage cheese) in the diet, or to use methionine, lipoic acid and other lipotropic drugs.
It is inappropriate to use for the correction of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes mellitus.
To reduce the irritating effect on the gastrointestinal mucosa, the drug is recommended to drink milk.
Powder, tablets of 0.05 g (for medicinal purposes), 1.7% sodium nicotinate solution (corresponding to 1% nicotinic acid) in 1 ml ampoules.
How is nicotinic acid useful?
The beneficial properties of nicotinic acid extend to the entire body, regardless of its biological sex, age and clinical condition. They contribute to the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system and reduce the level of harmful cholesterol in the blood, thereby preventing the development of heart disease.
In addition, nicotinic acid accelerates metabolism, saturates cells with oxygen and dilates blood vessels, which has a positive effect on the health of hypertensive patients. It also helps get rid of tinnitus, dizziness and headaches. In addition, it supports the functions of the liver and cleans it from the harm of slags and toxins, therefore, serves as an effective tool for alcohol poisoning.
But the beneficial properties of vitamin B3 do not end there. Nicotinic acid has proven its benefit for the body of women. Especially useful was the use of vitamin B3 in restoring hair structure. It also strengthens the blood vessels of the scalp, increasing their elasticity: the cells are more saturated with oxygen and beneficial compounds, there is a flow of blood to the hair follicles, and therefore they grow faster and become more durable.
Nicotinic acid has the same benefit for men. Since, among other beneficial properties, nicotinamide has the ability to regulate the functioning of the circulatory system, taking it as a medicine has a beneficial effect on potency and sexual desire. This acid has a positive effect on hair growth and is an effective remedy for baldness.
In addition, the beneficial properties of nicotinic acid are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of a number of different diseases, such as pellagra, neuritis, and others.
Indications for use of nicotinic acid
Although nicotinic acid is present in one or another concentration in most products of the main food groups, there are special categories of people to whom this substance is prescribed as a medicine. These categories include persons suffering from:
- disorders of the gastrointestinal tract,
- chronic hepatitis
- cirrhosis of the liver,
- vascular spasms
- long healing ulcers.
However, even people with the above diseases should not self-medicate and take the drug themselves. In order for the product to bring maximum benefit, you should first consult with a specialist.
Daily intake of nicotinic acid
Like any useful product, nicotinamide must be consumed in accordance with the indicated dosage, so that taking the vitamin does not cause harm.
For an adult healthy person, the daily rate is determined at the rate of 6.6 mg per 1000 calories, which is approximately 15-25 mg per day, depending on the lifestyle.
Children from 1 year to 6 years should take 10 to 12 mg of nicotinic acid daily, and from 10 to 13 years, 15 to 19 mg. Teenagers under 18 need 20 mg of vitamin a day.
Symptoms of a lack of nicotinic acid in the body
Since nicotinic acid brings tremendous benefits, it is natural that its deficiency can cause harm to the body. So, with a deficiency of vitamin B3 develops a number of symptoms characteristic of beriberi:
- lethargy, apathy,
- fast fatiguability,
- loss of appetite,
- impaired memory and attention
- sleep disorders
- digestive problems
- pre-depressive state.
The reason for the lack of vitamin B3 may be:
- excessive sugar intake
- taking large doses of leucine,
- alcohol abuse.
The above symptoms eliminate the course of pills or nicotinamide injections.
What products contain nicotinic acid
In its natural form, nicotinic acid is found in many plant products. Large amounts of vitamin B3 contain:
- cereals and products based on them (bread, rice and wheat bran, flour),
- nuts and seeds (peanuts, sunflower seeds, sesame),
- mushrooms (shiitake, mushrooms, mushrooms)
- legumes (soybeans, peas, lentils),
- yellow and red vegetables (potatoes, tomatoes, sweet peppers),
- dried fruits (dried apricots, prunes).
At the same time, nicotinic acid of legumes is absorbed by the body most effectively.
In animal products, nicotinic acid is present in the form of nicotinamide. You can find it:
- in beef liver,
- chicken eggs
- dairy products
- fish (tuna, cod, salmon).
A unique property of nicotinamide is its ability to retain its beneficial properties at high temperatures, due to which the products in which it is included are suitable for various heat treatments.
To nicotinic acid tablets brought tangible benefits, it is important to apply it only as directed by a physician. Most tablets are taken in the treatment of pellagra after a meal. The dose of the drug varies with age. So, adults are prescribed 0.1 g 3 - 4 times a day, but children - 0.02 - 0.05 mg 2 - 3 times a day. The course of treatment is from 2 to 3 weeks.
In ischemic disease, vascular spasms of the legs, gastritis with low acidity, and other violations of nicotinamide, adults are prescribed one-time dose of 0.05-0.1 g for 1 month.
The benefits of nicotinic acid injections are noted with pellagra, Raynaud's disease and vitamin deficiencies. In the first case, injections are carried out intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously with 1 ml of 1% solution 2 to 3 times a day. The course continues for 10 - 15 days. For other indications, the dose is changed to 10 mg 1 - 2 times a day for the same period.
The properties of nicotinic acid are also effective in Hartnup's disease, which is also treated with injections. The amount of medication here varies from 40 to 200 mg per day.
Nicotinic acid for weight loss
Nicotinic acid can be a good help for people who want to lose weight. It normalizes the metabolism and relieves the liver from harmful toxins, thus making it easier for the body to break down body fat. It also regulates the processes of digestion, which is why the stomach works better, nutrients are absorbed more actively, and therefore, one wants to eat less. In addition, vitamin B3 has anti-stress properties and eliminates nerve overstrain, which is often accompanied by overeating, so its benefits in losing weight is undeniable.
However, it should be remembered that nicotinic acid itself is not a means for losing weight and will bring the desired result only in combination with moderate athletic activity and healthy nutrition.
For hair growth
Nicotinic acid is beneficial to the health of hair, weakened by a lack of nutrients, improper care, stress or weather conditions. To return shine shine and activate growth, you can use a simple and effective method:
- Immediately after washing, a solution of nicotinamide from 2 ampoules is applied to the scalp. At the same time perform massaging movements, gently rubbing the medicine into the roots.
- Liquid do not wash off. After the procedure, you should not use a hair dryer for 30 minutes. You need to apply a mask every other day for 15 sessions.
Against hair loss
Since the properties of nicotinic acid help fight hair loss, people with this problem should try a special mask:
- One ampoule of nicotinamide is mixed with one ampoule of vitamin A and the same amount of vitamin E.
- Connect them with 2 tbsp. l flaxseed oil and 1 egg yolk.
- The components are mixed and rubbed into the scalp. From above put on the terry cap or the warming cap.
- After an hour the mask is washed off with warm running water. Shampoo use optional.
Nicotinic acid quite successfully eliminates dandruff. To prepare a mask for this ailment:
- First prepare the water bath. Propolis is poured with a small amount of water and boiled over medium heat for 20 minutes.
- The resulting solution is cooled and filtered.
- Aloe juice is mixed with nicotinic acid. Add to the decoction of propolis.
- The composition is washed into the roots and left for 30 minutes.
- Then rinse with warm water and mild shampoo.
For face skin
Nicotinamide also has regenerating properties, thereby serving as an excellent remedy for problem skin. In addition, it is often included in anti-aging masks. For this:
- One egg white is combined with 1 tsp. honey and 2 tbsp. l banana pulp.
- Add vitamin B3 and mix until smooth.
- Apply on face for 15 minutes. The procedure should be carried out no more than 2 times a week.
Can nicotinic acid be pregnant and lactating
Nicotinic acid may also be useful for women during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The sufficient availability of vitamin B3 is in itself an important condition for the normal development of the fetus and maintaining the health of the mother. Therefore, women who are in a special situation are strongly recommended to eat foods containing nicotinamide.
But taking vitamin B3 tablets as a dietary supplement during lactation and pregnancy is strictly contraindicated.
Nicotinic acid use for children
The properties of nicotinamide are able to benefit not only adults but also children. However, in the form of tablets or injections, it is recommended to take it only after reaching 10 years of age, since a high concentration of a substance may cause allergies. Younger children will be sufficient that the amount of vitamin B3, which they receive daily with food, provided that the infant diet is balanced.
Nicotinic acid interaction with other drugs
Caution should be taken with nicotinic acid with certain medications. In particular, this applies to any drugs that are aimed at preventing the formation of blood clots, since nicotinamide has similar properties and, in combination with similar drugs, can cause hemorrhages.
Vitamin B3 is also not recommended to be combined with agents that help lower blood pressure - this can only enhance the properties of the latter. The same applies to antispasmodics.
The interaction of nicotinic acid with antidiabetic drugs, in contrast, neutralizes all the benefits of glucose-lowering drugs.
In addition, nicotinamide is not compatible with the following substances:
- vitamins B2 and B6,
Side effects of nicotinic acid and overdose
Even taking into account the full benefits of nicotinamide and the almost complete absence of harmful effects on most people, it is worth remembering that in some cases, the use of vitamin B3 can cause unpleasant consequences for the body. Side effects of the drug include:
- allergic reactions
- facial redness,
- sensation of heat without changing body temperature
- temporary loss of sensitivity in certain areas of the body,
- feeling of numbness.
These symptoms do not require treatment and quickly disappear after reducing the dose of vitamin B3 or abolishing it completely. However, prolonged neglect of the primary symptoms may result in more serious health damage, for example:
- fatty liver dystrophy,
- reducing the body's ability to process glucose.
But since all these complications are to some extent related to the functioning of the liver, it is possible to mitigate the harmful effect of nicotinic acid intake by adding dishes with a high content of methionine to the daily menu. "Poshekhonsky" cheese, sea fish, turkey and almonds in the diet will help to maintain the normal functioning of the body without additional medical intervention.
The benefits and harm of nicotinic acid are directly dependent on the dosage. A correctly calculated amount of the drug will show its beneficial properties with all its effectiveness, but only if the medicine is prescribed by a doctor. Self-treatment can have a harmful effect on a person and aggravate existing diseases.
The role of nicotinic acid in biological processes
The biological role of nicotinic acid is associated with its participation in the construction of two coenzymes - NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (nicotinamide adenine din nucleotide phosphate), which are part of the most important redox enzymes. Coenzymes (coenzymes) are organic, natural compounds necessary for the catalytic action of enzymes. Coenzymes function as carriers of electrons, atoms from one substrate to another.
Vitamin PP attaches to proteins and creates together with them several hundred different enzymes. Enzymes of nicotinic acid form a "bridge" through which the hydrogen atoms are sent to the "furnace". Trillions of "furnaces" are kindled in the cells of the body and contribute to the release of energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins from food.
Nicotinic acid is directly involved in the processes of biological oxidation and energy metabolism. Being a component of NAD and NADP, it promotes the release of energy from food, DNA synthesis, regulates the processes of cellular respiration.
Nicotinic acid is involved in the following biological processes:
- cellular respiration, cellular energy,
- carbohydrate, fat, protein metabolism,
- heart activity
- control of cholesterol,
- connective tissue,
- production of gastric juice,
- functions of the digestive tract.
Nicotinic acid increases the use of plant proteins in the body, normalizes the secretory and motor function of the stomach, improves the secretion and composition of pancreatic juice, and normalizes the liver.
Almost all nicotinic acid present in the cells and body fluids is presented in the form of nicotinamide.
Products containing nicotinic acid
The main natural source of nicotinic acid intake into the human body are products of animal origin:
- animal organs - liver, kidney, muscle, heart,
- some species of fish - sardine, mackerel, tuna, salmon, halibut, swordfish, cod.
Grains of cereals, whole grain bread, rice and wheat bran, dried apricots, mushrooms, almonds, green peas, tomatoes, sweet red pepper, potatoes, and soybeans are rich in nicotinic acid. An excellent source of nicotinic acid deficiency replenishment is baker's yeast, brewer's yeast.
Table 1 presents the products in which nicotinic acid is found in the greatest amount.
Vitamin value of products depends not only on the amount of nicotinic acid, but also on the forms in which it resides. So, in legumes, it is in easily digestible form, and from cereals (rye, wheat), the vitamin is almost not absorbed.
In animal tissues, nicotinic acid is mainly in the form of nicotinamide, in plants it is like nicotinic acid. Vitamin PP is absorbed in the small intestine and is consumed by the body.
Nicotinic acid is one of the most resistant to storage, cooking, preservation of vitamins. High temperature during cooking and frying almost does not affect its content in the product. Vitamin PP is resistant to the effects of light, oxygen and alkali. It practically does not lose biological activity when freezing and drying products. In any treatment, the total loss of nicotinic acid does not exceed 15–20%.
Partially nicotinic acid can be synthesized from the essential amino acid tryptophan. However, this process is ineffective - out of tens of tryptophan molecules, only one vitamin molecule is formed. However, foods rich in tryptophan (milk, egg) can compensate for the lack of nicotinamide intake from food.
Daily need for vitamin
Nicotinic acid for children and adolescents daily requires:
- 5 - 6 mg up to one year old,
- 10 - 13 mg for children from 1 year to 6 years,
- 15 - 19 mg at the age of 7 to 12 years old,
- 20 mg for adolescents from 13 to 15 years.
Adults need for every 1000 calories consumed about 6.6 mg of vitamin. That is, the daily need for nicotinic acid for adults is 15-25 mg.
Increased need for vitamin PP is needed:
- those engaged in hard physical labor,
- older people
- patients who recently suffered severe injuries and burns
- for people who use alcohol and drugs
- people suffering from debilitating chronic diseases, including malignant tumors, pancreatic insufficiency, cirrhosis, sprue,
- in case of nervous overstrain
- young children born with metabolic disorders (congenital disorders caused by abnormalities in the chromosome set),
- pregnant and lactating women.
Loss of nicotinic acid is caused by excessive consumption of sugar, sweets, and sugary drinks. Nicotine reduces the absorption of vitamin PP. Therefore, people who are addicted to nicotine may also need to take it.
Long-term intake of large doses of leucine can lead to a deficiency of tryptophan and nicotinic acid.
Hypovitaminosis and hypervitaminosis
With insufficient intake of nicotinic acid in humans, the following early symptoms of hypovitaminosis develop: general fatigue, lethargy, apathy, decreased performance, insomnia, loss of appetite, weight loss, headaches, disorders of consciousness, impaired memory, indigestion, irritability, depression.
Secondary nicotinic acid deficiency occurs in a number of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, neuritis, allergic dermatosis, lead poisoning, benzene, and thallium.
Late symptoms of acid deficiency - Pellagra disease.
In mammals, hypervitaminosis (ultra-high doses of vitamin PP) could not be caused. Nicotinic acid reserves do not accumulate in the tissues. Her excess is immediately excreted in the urine. Elevated levels of nicotinic acid may be accompanied by an unpleasant sensation of "skin fever."
Diagnosis of the security of the body nicotinic acid
Indicator of the security of the human body with vitamin PP is the urinary excretion of the main metabolic products of nicotinic acid - N-methylnicotinamide and methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxyamide. Normally, 7–12 mg is excreted in the urine per day.
The decrease in urinary acid excretion indicates that the body is not sufficiently supplied with vitamin PP and that it is possible to develop vitamin deficiency. The concentration of the metabolites of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide increases dramatically when they are excessive in the body.
Of particular value is the study of the quantitative content of N-methylnicotinamide after a load of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide. This is the only criterion for determining the security of the organism with this vitamin. The level of vitamin PP itself or its coenzyme forms in the blood cannot be decisive, since even in severe pellagra their content differs little from that in healthy individuals.
Laboratory tests for the detection of nicotinic acid deficiency is urine analysis No. 1 for methylnicatinamide and urine analysis for 2-pyridone / No. 1 for methylnicatinamide.
Test results are not always convincing.
Chemical methods for quantitative nicotinic acid include the reaction of determining nicotinic acid with cyanide bromine.
Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in cardiovascular diseases
One of the main causes of damage and cell death during oxygen starvation (acute ischemia) is the developing insufficiency of energy supply. It is associated with both increased energy consumption (detoxification systems, activation of transport adenosine triphosphates) and insufficient formation of biological molecules that are able to accumulate and transfer energy during the reaction due to damage to mitochondrial membranes and others.
The concentration of substances involved in energy exchange processes varies dramatically. During ischemia, a cascade of physiological and pathophysiological reactions develops at the molecular level:
- The blood supply to the brain is reduced. Respectively decreases the delivery of oxygen from the bloodstream to the cells. And since oxygen participates in energy formation reactions, oxygen starvation develops - a hypoxic state. The cell loses the ability to oxidize a number of energy substrates.
- The increase in oxygen deficiency is accompanied by a decrease in the content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - an energy source.
- In the final stages of oxygen starvation, the level of energy deficiency becomes sufficient to trigger the main mechanisms that lead to disruption of vital activity and cell death.
- The concentration of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is rapidly increasing. And this is an additional mechanism of destruction of cell membranes.
- The disturbance of energy metabolism is rapidly developing. This leads to necrotic cell death.
- Changing the state of membrane structures and receptors triggers a single molecular mechanism aimed at the response of brain tissue to a damaging effect. Acute reduction of cerebral blood flow (cerebral ischemia) activates a complex of genetic programs that lead to the sequential transformation of the hereditary information of a large number of genes.
- The first response of the brain tissue to a decrease in cerebral blood flow is a decrease in the synthesis of messenger RNA and proteins - a poly (ADP-ribosyl) reaction - a modification of proteins. The enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) -polymerase (PARP) is involved in this reaction.
- The donor of ADP-ribose is nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD). The enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) -polymerase (PARP) starts very actively (500 times stronger) to consume nicotinamide, greatly reducing its content inside the cell. And since nicotinamide dinucleotide regulates vital processes in the cell, its deficiency causes cell death according to the variant of necrosis.
The use of drug protection of the brain reduces the risk of cerebral ischemia during the temporary suspension of blood flow in the supporting vessel. For this purpose, preparations inhibiting (inhibiting) the activity of cellular enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) -polymerase are used. A sharp drop in the level of nicotinamide is prevented, and cell survival increases. This reduces tissue damage associated with ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction.
Among the active inhibitors (substances that suppress the flow of enzymatic processes) is nicotinamide. By structure and action, it is close to nicotinic acid, participates in redox processes in the body. Nicotinamide has a high selective effect on the enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) -polymerase. He also has a number of nonspecific effects:
- acts as an antioxidant
- affects the metabolic processes of glucose, lipids and nucleotides,
- inhibits total synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein.
Nicotinamide prevents the development of severe metabolic disorders in the brain, activates the work of energy metabolism systems in the cell, helping to preserve the energy status of the cell.
Combination preparations containing nicotinic acid are widely used in disorders of cerebral circulation, myocardial infarction, poured endarteritis, Raynaud's disease, that is, in all cases when microcirculation and collateral (circumferential) circulation is increased is actually the only way to preserve the functional abilities of tissues.
Experimental and clinical data show that vitamin PP relaxes spasmodic coronary vessels, so nicotinic acid as part of the drugs Nikovirin and Nikoshpan is successfully used for angina pectoris.
By activating specific enzymes - tissue fibrinases, nicotinic acid enhances the activity of the blood to dissolve intravascular blood clots.
Nicotinic acid lowers blood cholesterol
One of the preventive measures associated with acute disorders of cerebral circulation is to reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood. Nicotinic acid interferes with the release of fatty acids and thus reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood.
Nicotinic acid has been used as a hypolipidemic agent since 1955. In a large dose, it has a diverse effect on lipid metabolism:
- inhibits the breakdown of fats in adipose tissue, which limits the delivery of free fatty acids to the liver, eventually inhibits hepatic synthesis of triglycerides and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL),
- increases the splitting of VLDL in the blood,
- reduces the blood levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL), depleting their precursors - very low density lipoproteins,
- increases the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
Nicotinic acid in doses of 3–6 g per day reduces the amount of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins by 15–25% after 3–5 weeks of therapy, reduces the level of triglycerides (fat molecules) of very low density lipoproteins by 20–80% after 1–4 days , increases the cholesterol content of high-density lipoproteins by 10–20%, prevents the appearance of lipoprotein (a).
Patients are much better tolerated by nicotinic acid when used in dosage forms with prolonged action. These are Nycobid Tempules (microencapsulated tablets with fast and slow release), Layer-Niacin (a compound of nicotine acid with a polygel), Enduracin (matrices of tropical wax containing nicotine acid).
Taking only nicotinic acid in a daily dose of 3 g or in combination with other drugs reduces the incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and the need for surgical intervention on the heart and blood vessels. In patients receiving nicotinic acid, signs of regression of coronary atherosclerosis, a decrease in the frequency of progression of atherosclerotic lesions are noted.
The cardiotrophic action of nicotinic acid
With repeated use of nicotinic acid in the damaged myocardium, the content of pyruvic and lactic acids decreases, while the content of glycogen and adenosine triphosphate increases.
Improved microcirculation due to the expansion of capillaries increases the oxygen enrichment of the myocardium. As a result of the normalization of biochemical processes, the contractile activity of the myocardium is also improved (the cardiotonic effect of nicotinic acid).
Nicotinic acid potentiates the action of herbal medicines that in cardinal doses have cardiotonic and antiarrhythmic effects - cardiac glycosides. The drugs are used to treat heart failure. The use of nicotinic acid in combination with digitalis glycosides is especially effective.
Hepatotropic effect of vitamin PP
Nicotinic acid affects liver function. Hepatotropic effect is expressed in stimulation of secretion and excretion of bile, stimulation of glycogen-forming and protein-educational functions of the liver.
Nicotinic acid is indicated:
- with various professional intoxications - poisoning with aniline, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, hydrazine,
- in household poisoning,
- with drug intoxication with barbiturates, anti-tuberculosis drugs, sulfonamides,
- with toxic hepatitis.
Under the action of nicotinic acid, the detoxification ability of the liver is enhanced - the formation of paired glucuronic acids, which are formed during the detoxification process, is increased, the toxic metabolic products and external toxic compounds are replaced.
Neurotropic action of nicotinic acid
Neurotropic drugs are drugs that have an effect on the central and peripheral nervous system. Nicotinic acid is involved in the biosynthesis of hormones that affect the human psyche.
The “hormone of happiness” serotonin is formed from tryptophan. Serotonin affects a person’s sleep and mood. Since nicotinic acid is absolutely indispensable for the production of energy in the cells of the body, then with its deficiency a significant proportion of tryptophan turns into nicotinic acid. The more tryptophan is spent on energy, the less it is left to calm the nerves and have a good sleep. Lack of serotonin leads to insomnia, poor concentration, depression, nervousness, depression, hallucinations, and sometimes schizophrenia.
Nicotinic acid is the only vitamin that is indirectly involved in hormonal metabolism in the human body. Its neurotropic properties are manifested by increased inhibitory processes. Strengthening the inhibitory processes under the action of nicotinic acid has a beneficial effect on the body as a whole: the efficiency increases, the number of inadequate reactions decreases.
Nicotinic acid is used in the treatment of neurotic and psychotic states, delirium tremens (disorders of consciousness), and chronic alcoholism. It potentiates the action of neuroleptics and barbiturates, weakens the effect of caffeine and phenamine.
Nicotinamide refers to drugs of mixed action with a wide range of applications. It is part of the drug Cytoflavin. This is a balanced complex of components, the effective combination of which has a synergistic regulating effect on all the major metabolic pathways in the central nervous system, which are more or less disturbed during brain ischemia.
Cytoflavin reduces the degree of neurological deficit and accelerates the recovery of functions in ischemic stroke. The drug affects the main pathophysiological processes that occur during ischemic lesion of the neuronal structures of the brain:
- restores antioxidant protection factors
- activates energy-forming processes and reactions
- inhibits oxidative stress reactions, increasing the ability of cells to utilize glucose and oxygen,
- stimulates protein synthesis within cells.
Thanks to these numerous effects, there is an improvement in coronary and cerebral blood flow, stabilization of metabolic activity in the cells of the central system, which is clinically manifested by a decrease in the existing neurological deficit and restoration of impaired functions.
Nicotinamide is part of the combined metabolic drug Cockarnit (manufactured by World Medicine, United Kingdom). The drug is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of diabetes mellitus complications - diabetic polyneuropathy.
Nicotinamide improves nerve conduction and blood flow in the nerves in diabetes mellitus, reduces lipid oxidation, the formation of free radicals and secondary lipid oxidation products. The drug has multiple effects and low toxicity at high doses in the treatment of patients, which is confirmed by the results of numerous studies.
Pellagra (nicotinic acid deficiency): symptoms and treatment
Pellagra (from Italian pelle agra - rough skin) is a disease associated with insufficient intake or incomplete absorption of nicotinic acid. The basis of the disease is a violation of the energy of the cells and their ability to actively divide.
In the past, pellagra was developed where corn was the staple food. In this cereal culture, nicotinic acid is found in a hard-to-absorb form, it is poor in tryptophan, from which vitamin can be synthesized. The main regions of occurrence of pellagra were the south of Europe, Africa, Latin America, the southern US states. In Tsarist Russia, the disease occurred in Bessarabia (Moldova), to a lesser extent in Georgia.
The main cause of the development of nicotinic acid deficiency among the inhabitants of our country are chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (enteritis, colitis) associated with a violation of its absorption.
Causes of the disease
The cause of the disease is not only a low content of nicotinic acid in food products, but also:
- insufficient tryptophan content,
- high content of leucine in food, which inhibits the synthesis of NADF in the body,
- low level of pyridoxine conferences,
- the presence in grain products of niacithin and niacinogen, as well as related forms of nicotinic acid, not absorbed by the body.
In children, pellagra usually develops with an unbalanced diet with a predominance of carbohydrates. In very rare cases, the disease develops in breastfed babies as a result of insufficient nutritional content of the nursing mother of vitamins.
Pathological processes occurring during illness
When pellagra affects the skin, organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system. The severity of the process depends on the stage and form of the disease.
Changes in the skin appear as extensive patches of red-brown color, overflowing with blood, with sharp boundaries of damage. The skin swells, thickened. In the late stages of the disease, atrophy of the epidermis occurs.
Erosions or ulcers appear in the oral cavity. Edematous bright red tongue with painful ulcerations later becomes lacquered. Atrophic changes occur in the integumentary epithelium of the pharynx and esophagus, the mucous membrane of the small and large intestine.
The stomach, pancreas and liver are reduced in size. The mucous membrane of the stomach is anemic with single hemorrhages, the folds are mild. The secretion of digestive glands is suppressed, Akhilia occurs - the absence of hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin in the gastric juice. Fatty dystrophy of her working cells of hepatocytes is observed in the liver.
In the brain and spinal cord, as well as in the peripheral nervous system, dystrophic changes of neurocytes are detected with signs of neuronophagy — damaged or degeneratively altered nerve cells are destroyed and removed from the body with the help of phagocytes — cells of the immune system.
Significant metabolic disorders and functions of many organs lead to dystrophic and degenerative changes in almost all organs and tissues. Kidneys, lungs, heart, spleen are affected.
Pellagra occurs in school and adolescence, in early childhood - very rarely. In general, adults at the age of 20-50 years get sick.
The clinical picture of pellagra is characterized by three main manifestations:
- dermatitis - skin lesion in symmetrical areas accessible to the action of sunlight (hence the name of the disease),
- diarrhea is a disorder of the gastrointestinal tract,
- dementia is a mental disorder with memory loss, dementia, and delirium.
Signs of illness usually occur by the end of winter. Patients are weak 3 to 5 times a day and more often. Stool free from blood and mucus, watery, with a putrid odor.
Further, there is a burning sensation in the oral cavity and severe drooling. Swollen, cracked lips. Ulcers appear on the gums and under the tongue. Characterized by language changes. At the beginning its back is covered with a bloom of black-brown color, the edges and the tip are bright red. Gradually, the redness passes over the entire surface of the tongue, it becomes smooth and shiny.
Then, pellagratic erythema appears: in open areas (face, neck, rear of hands and feet), the skin reddens, swells and itches under the action of the sun. Sometimes blisters form, which burst and leave moist. After a few days, scaly peeling occurs. With a decrease in inflammation on the affected areas of the skin remains persistent grayish-brown pigmentation, less often there is a depigmentation of the type of vitiligo.
The function of the peripheral nerves and the central nervous system is impaired. There is dizziness, headaches. Apathy is replaced by depression. Psychoses, psychoneuroses develop, hallucinations are noted in severe cases, convulsions occur, and mental retardation develops.
In early childhood, the classic symptoms of pellagra are not so pronounced. Inflammations of the tongue, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, skin redness predominate. Changes in the psyche are rare.
The most severe complication of pellagra is encephalopathy (organic brain damage) with psychotic reactions.
Diagnosis of the disease
The diagnosis is based on the characteristic clinical manifestations of the disease, data on the nature of nutrition, biochemical studies. Pellagra is characterized by the content of NI-methylnicotinamide in daily urine below 4 mg, the content of nicotinic acid is below 0.2 mg. Content in blood and urine of other vitamins of group B decreases.
All patients with fresh and recurrent manifestations of pellagra are hospitalized.
Treatment of patients with nicotinic acid deficiency includes a diet rich in vitamin PP, containing enough protein. In milder forms of vitamin deficiency, vitamins are prescribed in tablets. Patients suffering from insufficient absorption of nutrients in the small intestine, they are injected.
The recommended daily dose for treatment is 300 mg of vitamin divided into 2 to 3 doses. Treatment continues for 3 to 4 weeks.
Therapeutic doses of nicotinic acid are preferably administered in the form of nicotinamide, which has significantly fewer side effects than the use of nicotinic acid.
When mental disorders prescribe low doses of neuroleptics (aminazine, frenolone, triftazin) in combination with antidepressants (amitriptyline) and tranquilizers (seduxen), which are administered intramuscularly or intravenously. In cases of organic psychosyndrome, high doses of thiamine or nootropil are prescribed in the form of repeated courses.
Since pellagra shows signs of deficiency of other B vitamins, as well as tryptophan amino acids, the treatment plan includes the introduction of a complex preparation of vitamin B.
After starting treatment, the symptoms of gastrointestinal distress disappear after a few days. Signs of dementia and dermatitis improve significantly during the first week of therapy. If the pellagra has acquired a chronic form, recovery requires a longer period of treatment, but the patient’s appetite and general physical condition improve quickly.
The incidence of pellagra described in patients suffering from diseases of the digestive system anahlorgidriey (lack of hydrochloric acid) for esophageal cancer, ulcers, cancer and syphilitic lesions of gastric and duodenal ulcers, chronic ulcerative colitis, tuberculosis, after dysentery, after operations on digestive organs, in chronic alcoholism, treatment of isoniazid tuberculosis.
Nicotinic acid is available in the form of tablets and solution for injection.
Subcutaneous and intramuscular injections of the vitamin are painful. Intravenous solution must be administered slowly, as a strong decrease in blood pressure may occur.
One tablet contains: nicotinic acid 0.05 g - active ingredients, glucose, stearic acid - excipients.
One milliliter of solution for injection contains: nicotinic acid 10 mg - the active substance, sodium bicarbonate, water for injection - auxiliary substances.
Prevention and treatment of pellagra (avitaminosis PP).
Combined therapy of ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation, obliterating vascular diseases of the extremities (obliterating endarteritis, Raynaud's disease) and kidney problems, complications of diabetes mellitus - diabetic polyneuropathy, microangiopathy.
Liver diseases - acute and chronic hepatitis, gastritis with low acidity, neuritis of the facial nerve, various intoxications (professional, medical, alcoholic), nonhealing wounds and ulcers.
Method of use of nicotinic acid and dosing
It is applied as prescribed by a doctor.
Nicotinic acid tablets are taken orally after a meal.
As an antipellagic agent prescribed:
- adults - nicotinic acid, 0.1 g 2-4 times a day (maximum daily dose - 0.5 g),
- children - from 0.0125 to 0.05 g 2 - 3 times a day depending on age.
The course of treatment is 15 to 20 days.
Adults with ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation, vascular spasms of the limbs, gastritis with low acidity, neuritis of the facial nerve, wounds and ulcers, nicotinic acid is recommended to be administered in a single dose of 0.05 - 0.1 g, in a daily dose - up to 0.5 g. treatment - 1 month.
Control therapy, cautions
To prevent complications from the liver with long-term use of nicotinic acid in large doses, it is recommended to include products rich in methionine (cottage cheese) in the diet or use methionine, lipoic acid, Essentiale and other lipotropic drugs.
With caution should be used nicotinic acid in gastritis with acidity, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.In the process of treatment with vitamin, especially large doses, should be carefully monitored the function of the liver.
Interaction with other drugs
Consultation with the doctor is necessary if nicotinic acid will be used simultaneously with other drugs.
Pharmaceutical incompatibility. Do not mix with a solution of thiamine chloride (the destruction of thiamine occurs).
Potentiates the action of fibrinolytic agents, antispasmodics and cardiac glycosides, enhances the toxic hepatotropic effect of alcohol.
Care must be taken when combining with antihypertensive drugs (possibly enhanced hypotensive action), anticoagulants, acetylsalicylic acid due to the risk of hemorrhages.
Reduces the toxicity of neomycin and prevents them from reducing the concentration of cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein. Weakens the toxic effect of barbiturates, anti-tuberculosis drugs, sulfonamides.
Oral contraceptives and isoniazid slow down the conversion of tryptophan to nicotinic acid and thus may increase the need for nicotinic acid.
Antibiotics may enhance nicotinic acid flushing.
Nicotinic acid is available without a prescription.
Indications for use of nicotinamide - hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis of PP, as well as the state of increased body needs for vitamin PP:
- defective and unbalanced nutrition (including parenteral),
- malabsorption, including on the background of dysfunction of the pancreas,
- fast weight loss
- prolonged fever,
- Hartnup disease
- diseases of the hepatobiliary area - acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis,
- chronic infections
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract - hypo-and anacid gastritis, enterocolitis, colitis, gluten enteropathy, persistent diarrhea, tropical sprue, Crohn's disease,
- malignant tumors,
- diseases of the oropharyngeal region,
- prolonged stress
- pregnancy (especially with nicotine and drug addiction, multiple pregnancy),
- lactation period.
As a vasodilator nicotinamide is not used. Nicotinamide does not have a lipid-lowering effect.
Due to the neutral reaction of the solution, nicotinamide does not cause a local reaction with injections. Unlike nicotinic acid, the drug does not have a pronounced vasodilating effect, therefore, no phenomenon of inflammation is observed when using nicotinamide.
The drug is prescribed by mouth and injection.
Nicotinic acid for hair
When applied to the scalp, nicotinic acid expands the peripheral blood vessels, increasing blood circulation, improves the transport of oxygen and beneficial microelements, enhances the metabolic processes in the tissues, which prevents hair loss and stimulates their accelerated growth.
Instructions for use of the solution for hair indicates that when nicotinic acid is used, baldness is suspended, the hair becomes thicker, becomes shiny and silky. Also, nicotinic acid supports normal hair pigmentation, as a prophylactic against gray hair.
Nicotinic acid included in the product with regular use:
- awakens dormant hair follicles and promotes hair growth by stimulating microcirculation,
- restores and regenerates damaged bulbs,
- prevents hair loss by strengthening the roots and counteracting the collagen compaction around the hair root,
- promotes the production of melanin - a pigment that makes the curls shiny, preserves their color, prevents premature appearance of gray hair.
The drug does not dry the skin in case of repeated use, as evidenced by dermatological tests.
Method of application of nicotinic acid: tube-dropper open immediately before use. Apply the contents of the tube immediately after washing on the scalp, evenly distributing the acid over the entire surface with massaging movements. Do not wash off the applied agent.
Slight tingling and redness of the scalp after application of the product due to increased microcirculation and is normal.
Use nicotinic acid 1 time in 3 days. Recommended course - 14 procedures. It can be repeated once every three months.
Despite all the advantages, nicotinic acid was not widely used in clinical practice. This is due to the many side effects that accompany high-dose intake of vitamin PP.